Research and Publications

Suzette G.A. Flantua,  Aaron O'Dea,  Renske E. Onstein,  Catalina Giraldo, Henry Hooghiemstra.

The flickering connectivity system was published in June 2019 in the Journal of Biogeography.


This publication is about how the Pleistocene climate change was the driver of significant elevational and spatial shifts in páramos causing dynamic changes in habitat connectivity across and within all mountain ranges. Some generalities emerge, including the fact that connectivity was greatest during the most ephemeral of times. However, the timing, duration, and degree of connectivity varied substantially among mountain ranges depending on their topographical configuration. The flickering connectivity system of the páramos uncovers the dynamic settings in which evolutionary radiations shaped the most diverse alpine biome on Earth. 

This paper has a visualization as a supplement that can be downloaded  at:



Follow the story on how the visualization was made and complement this publication at:

The flickering connectivity system of the north Andean páramos

Illustrated guide of pollen and native plants visited by bees   

 -Cundinamarca, Boyacá, Santander, Sucre, Atlántico,

and Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta -Colombia


Catalina Giraldo, Ángela Rodríguez, Fermín J. Chamorro, Diana Obregón, Paula Montoya, Nedy Ramírez, Víctor Solarte, Guiomar Nates-Parra

This illustrated guide published in Spanish in 2011 is the result of three years working in the Bees Lab Research, led by Professor Guiomar Nates at the National University of Colombia. As an educational tool for beekeepers shows the main plants visited by Apis mellifera and native stingless bees in five Colombian regions.

Since ancient times, the bees have been considered dancing goddesses, mother goddesses or beings capable of preserving balance and harmony in the hive. Ancient cultures such as Sumerian, Arab, Egyptian and Australian, among others, praised bees for their creative power to produce the elixir of honey. Bees are not only honey, pollen, propolis and wax producers but have always been the main pollinators of plants and our diet depends on them. Bees pollinate about 70% of plants and thanks to them, plants can reproduce and create the next generation through fruits and seeds and then keep humanity feeding.


Check out this interesting Review for the Book by Victor H. Gonzalez-  University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas-


This Photo Plant Guide #133 published in 2004 is from Cundinamarca - Albán, Granjas del Padre Luna, Common Plants, Colombia

This paper published in 2008 describes a sequence of sediments analysed at Caqueta Valley River in the colombian Amazon.  A place called Manacaro island was studied by means of pollen analysis, interpretation, soil formation and radiocarbon dating. The resullt is the vegetation history changes that happend 13.000. years before present during the Late Glacial (Published in Spanish).

This paper published in 2008 describes a potential distribution modelling  for Condalia thomasiana, an endemic plant species from the Checua valley river at Cundinamarca,  Colombia. These plants population are endangered as a consequence of fragmentated habitats. (Published in Spanish).

In this paper published in  2009 we describe and illustrate three new bee species of the genus Chilicola spinola

from the Eastern Andes of Colombia.

This paper published in 2011 developed a composite pollen-based record of altitudinal  vegetation changes from Lake Fuquene (5◦ N) in Colombia at 2540 m elevation on Andes Mountains. We quantitatively calibrated Arboreal Pollen percentages (AP%) into mean annual temperature (MAT) changes with an unprecedented ∼60-year resolution over the past 284 000 years.


This paper published in 2013 describes a record of environmental and climatic change in the northern Andes during the last interglacial–glacial cycle based on integrated information from pollen and grain size distributions (GSD).

This article published in 2013 describes the pollen of plant species as markers of honey from its geographical and botanical origin in four departments of Colombia. A basis to generate denomination of origin of honeys.